At least one meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial (RCT), or high quality quasi-experimental design (QED) has linked the strategy to a reduced likelihood of an undesirable outcome or an increased likelihood of a favorable outcome.
At least one low-to-moderate quality quasi-experimental design (QED) has linked the strategy to a reduced likelihood of an undesirable outcome or an increased likelihood of a favorable outcome.
At least one meta-analysis, RCT or high-quality QED has:
- linked the strategy to a reduced likelihood of highly-correlated undesirable outcomes or an increased likelihood of highly-correlated favorable outcomes OR
- linked a similar strategy to an impact on the outcome of interest OR
- documented the causal links between risk and protective factors targeted by the strategy and the outcome(s) of interest.
Research to support this recommendation was not identified or is insufficient. However, the recommendation is 1) driven by sound data and/or theory 2) has been found to be feasible in multiple settings, and 3) has no evidence of adverse or mixed effects.
A policy is a high-level plan that targets specific goals and outlines clear procedures to which a cohesive entity, such as a governmental body (e.g., nation, state, or local jurisdiction) or organizational unit (e.g., restaurant, school, non-governmental organization), is encouraged or mandated to adhere. Laws, statutes, and agency procedures are examples of policies.
A practice is an overarching model or set of processes and components upon which programs are built. Practices, unlike programs, are not prescriptive. Some well-known practices include: cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, case management, contingency management, drug courts, and skills training.
Primary Prevention: Environmental Controls and Social Determinants
Reduce the need to self-medicate, control access to addictive substances, and promote protective factors.
A program is a planned, coordinated, and prescribed group of activities and practices designed to achieve a specific purpose. Each program may have one or more core implementation or curricular components designed to produce change in one or more behaviors, based on a clear theory of change. A program should be something that can be implemented with fidelity to the model, regardless of location, but may allow slight adaptations to accommodate the context. The program can be implemented in the same manner at multiple locations. Well-known substance use prevention programs include: Functional Family Therapy (FFT) and Botvin’s Life Skills Training (LST).
Secondary Prevention: Chronic Disease Screening and Management
Diagnose and treat addictions and substance use disorders.
Tertiary Prevention: Acute Health Event Control and Prevention
Prevent life-threatening adverse outcomes.