Training and Education

Training and Education

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Strategy Evidence Summary Intervention Type
Educate and train prescribers and pharmacists to use prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) databases and effectively interpret and respond to PDMP data. Experience-based for reducing prescription opioid misuse: Healthcare providers equipped to effectively use PDMPs will be better able to identify patients who may be misusing opioids and understand and manage their own prescribing practices. Training should also help prescribers and pharmacists better communicate with patients who are misusing prescription opioids. However, research to support this practice for reducing prescription opioid misuse is insufficient. Practice
Train medical examiners, coroners, toxicologists, emergency medical services staff, and emergency department staff to specify the drug(s) causing overdose death and apply uniform standards and case definitions when identifying and reporting opioid overdose deaths. Experience-based for reducing fatal opioid overdose: Training medical staff in the identification and reporting of opioid overdose deaths enables more accurate surveillance of fatal opioid overdose in the jurisdiction. This may, in turn, equip states to more effectively respond to opioid overdose outbreaks. However, research to support this practice for reducing fatal opioid overdose is not available. Practice
Encourage systems, medical and nursing schools, physician assistant programs, and medical residency programs to provide courses and training in comprehensive pain management or pain medicine. Experience-based for reducing prescription opioid misuse. At least one pre-post study found a four-day pain management course for medical students increased students' interest in pain medicine. However, research to support this practice for reducing prescription opioid misuse is insufficient. Practice
Provide student and provider training in medication-assisted treatment (MAT) and associated best practices, and provide education on the signs and symptoms of opioid use disorder. Experience-based for reducing opioid use disorder: Training current and prospective clinicians in MAT expands the capacity of primary care clinicians to deliver MAT. This expansion, may, in turn, increase MAT provision in primary care settings, which may reduce opioid use disorder. However, research to support this practice for reducing opioid use disorder is not available. Practice
Provide Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) training to medical students and residents, healthcare professionals, social service providers, and school health teams. Experience-based for preventing and reducing substance use disorders: One pre-post study evaluating the effect of SBIRT training on pediatric residents found that the training resulted in increased knowledge about SBIRT skills while delivering a brief negotiation interview. This, in turn, could reduce rates of opioid use disorder in the residents' patients. However, research to support this practice for preventing and reducing substance use disorders is insufficient. Practice
Implement opioid overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs, which equip people with opioid use disorders and potential overdose bystanders (such as friends and family, peers, and harm reduction outreach workers) with naloxone and train them on how and when to administer it. Evidence-informed for reducing opioid overdose deaths: At least one meta-analysis suggests that OEND programs increase individual knowledge of opioid overdose and efficacy in using naloxone. These benefits may, in turn, increase the use of naloxone and thereby decrease overdose deaths. Program
Recruit, train, and certify peers to support prevention, treatment, and health promotion and assist patients with long-term recovery. Experience-based for reducing opioid use disorder and relapse: Training peers to support and treat individuals with opioid use disorder is one way to expand the treatment and recovery workforce. Expanding the treatment and recovery workforce increases access to care. This may, in turn, reduce opioid use disorder and prevent relapse. However, the effectiveness of peer training efforts in reducing opioid use disorder and relapse is insufficient. Practice
Implement brief trainings for opioid prescribers on how to engage in a collaborative decisionmaking approach to treating chronic non-cancer pain, using programs like Collaborative Opioid Prescribing Education (COPE). Evidence-informed for reducing prescription opioid misuse: At least one randomized controlled trial found COPE to increase medical professionals' knowledge and increase perceived competence in the management of chronic noncancer pain. These benefits may (indirectly) reduce overprescribing and patients' risk of prescription opioid misuse. Program
Provide academic detailing to providers to promote and support the use of state and national (e.g., CDC) opioid prescribing guidelines for chronic non-cancer pain and teach effective, evidence-based, non-opioid pain management options. Evidence-informed for reducing prescription opioid misuse: At least one randomized controlled trial found an academic detailing intervention to reduce inappropriate prescribing. Improving prescribers behaviors may reduce patients' likelihood of misusing prescription opioids. Practice
Educate first responders (including police and fire and emergency medical services) on state "Good Samaritan" laws related to opioid overdose. Experience-based for reducing fatal opioid overdose: At least one pre-post study suggests that training law enforcement officers on Good Samaritan laws increases their knowledge about these laws. Increased knowledge may, in turn, reduce the likelihood that law enforcement will arrest persons who call 911 to receive assistance in the event of an overdose and increase the likelihood of diverting these individuals to treatment. However, research to support this practice for reducing fatal opioid overdose is insufficient. Practice
Increase providers' awareness about the effects of stigma on opioid addiction. Help providers evaluate their own feelings about stigma and teach them to address addiction as a chronic disease. Evidence-informed for preventing and reducing opioid use disorder: At least one systematic review found that negative attitudes toward patients with opioid use disorders contributed to suboptimal healthcare for these patients. Practice
Increase the number of Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 200 (DATA 2000)-waivered clinicians to develop an adequate workforce of professionals who can prescribe medication to treat opioid use disorder.  Experience-based for reducing opioid use disorder: Increasing enrollment in buprenorphine training courses increases the number of professionals eligible for a DATA 2000 waiver. Increasing the number of DATA-waivered clinicians increases patients' access to medication assisted treatment (MAT). Increased access to MAT may, in turn, reduce rates of opioid use disorder. However, research to support this practice for reducing opioid use disorder is insufficient. Practice